Silent Partners

Artist & Mannequin
from function to fetish

About

For centuries, the mannequin, or lay figure, was little more than a studio tool, a piece of equipment as necessary as easel, pigments and brushes.

Silent Partners will show the multiple purposes it served – from fixing perspective, understanding the fall of light and shadow and painting reflections to acting as a support for drapery and costume. From the 19th century, however, the mannequin moved centre stage to become the subject of the painting, and eventually, in creative partnership with the artist, a work of art in its own right. By examining the history and ubiquity of the mannequin from the Renaissance to the present day, the exhibition will review apparently contradictory notions of realism and artifice in representational painting, and also deepen our understanding of the work, and working methods of many of the most significant artists in the history of European art, including Nicolas Poussin, Thomas Gainsborough, Pre-Raphaelite painters such as John Everett Millais and Ford Madox Brown, Gustave Courbet, Edgar Degas and Paul Cézanne as well as, 20th century painters, sculptors and photographers, filmmakers such as Georges Méliès, Giorgio De Chirico, Man Ray, Oskar Kokoschka, Hans Richter, Paul Delvaux and Hans Bellmer.

Exhibition generously supported by: Henry Moore Foundation, The Monument Trust, The Marlay Group, The Tavolozza Foundation and The Technology Partnership. Exhibition programme generously supported by ttpgroup.
  


Visiting

Walking

The Museum is in Trumpington Street, Cambridge, within walking distance (approximately 500 metres) from the city centre.
Rail

The nearest railway station is Cambridge (approx. 20 mins walk), with taxis and frequent buses to the city centre. Cambridge railway station has frequent services from London (Kings Cross 50 minutes non-stop), Stansted Airport, Peterborough (connecting with the main East coast line) and the Midlands.

Park & Ride

Park & Ride facilities are at:
Babraham Road (off A1307 at Gog Magog roundabout)
Cowley Road (off A14 at A10 junction)
Trumpington (off M11, J11)
Madingley Road (off M11, J13)
Newmarket Road (off A14 on A1303, Stow-cum-Quy interchange)

All with frequent buses to the city centre. Further information from Cambridgeshire County Council.

Shop

The Museum Shop is located in the courtyard area and offers a wide range of books, cards, notecard packs, giftwrap and other merchandise inspired by the Fitzwilliam's collections, together with exciting and original gifts for adults and children. The shop opens during normal Museum opening hours, closing 15 minutes before the Museum.

A selection of merchandise from the shop is available for purchase online at the Fitzwilliam Museum Online Shop.


Events

The mannequin: A cultural disorder?

Wed 14th January, 13:15 – 14:00
Gallery 12/Gallery 13
Admission Free

Dr Rod Mengham, University Reader of Modern English Literature and Curator of Works of Art, Jesus College, Cambridge.
Admission is by token, 1 per person, available at the Courtyard Entrance desk from 12.45 on the day of the talk.

It’s Alive!

Sat 17th January, 14:00 – 15:00

Discover how the master Automata makers represent life and nature using traditional clockwork and hand-operated mechanisms. An hour-long presentation lifting the lid on incredible secrets passed down through generations of craftsmen, which are largely undocumented. Many of these fascinating methods of replicating life exist only in the antique automata demonstrated this afternoon. Michael and Maria Start from The House of Automata will pull aside the covers and explain just how it is done using projections and real automata that are rarely seen playing and performing. At the end, there will be time for questions and the opportunity to closely inspect…

Screening of Pictures in Motion (‘Vivement le Cinema’) by Jérôme Prieur

Sun 18th January, 15:00

Emmanuel College, The Queen’s Building Theatre.

Author and film maker Jérôme Prieur has a distinguished reputation for his documentary films, many of which have been broadcast on the Franco-German network, ARTE. His film The Other Life (2014) was made specially to coincide with Silent Partners and in projected in the exhibition.

This screening offers rare opportunity to see his 2011 documentary exploring how pioneers of optical toys and photography influenced the production of film the evolution of modern-day cinema.

The projection will be followed by a Q&A with Jérôme Prieur, author and independent film maker, Paris, and Marta Braun, Professor in the History of Photography and Film, Ryerson University, Toronto and noted expert in the work of the 19th century photographers Étienne-Jules Marey and Eadweard Muybridge.

The screening is in English and takes place in Emmanuel College, The Queen’s Building Theatre.

Booking essential. To register your interest please contact 01223 332904 or email education@fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk. Places will be confirmed on receipt of payment.

£5. Free admission for students.

 

Screening of Hugo

Sun 18th January, 18:00

A special screening of Hugo, director Martin Scorcese’s touching tribute to the pioneer of early cinema, Georges Méliès, whose short film L’Artiste et le mannequin (1900) features in Silent Partners.

Preceded by a short animated film by Lizzy Hobbs featuring mannequins created by families who attended The Adventures of a Mannequin workshop at the Museum in connection with Silent Partners and by a talk by Michael Start of ‘The House of Automata’ in Kinloss, Scotland, automata and horological advisor on Hugo.

Tickets available one week before screening. To book contact Cambridge Arts Picturehouse on 0871 902 5720 or visit www.picturehouses.co.uk.


Podcasts, Films and Photos

Content to complement and accompany the exhibition Silent Partners.

Short behind the scenes films and photos from the exhibition and related events.

Stories about and responses to the exhibition and its related events.

Following the opening of the Fitzwilliam Museum’s major exhibition Silent Partners, mannequins will be invading Cambridge City Centre in a Mannequin Parade from Saturday 25 October – Sunday 9 November, timed to coincide with the beginning of October half term.

The mannequins are being placed in various locations and shops across the city, all dressed differently, with unique names and ages relating to historic artists, lay figures, paintings, and references to books and film.

Participating venues have posters in their windows, and maps are available to pick up from each location to spot all twelve of the Silent Partners mannequin displays; people who find them all and jot down their names can enter a competition to win a digital camera from John Lewis, Cambridge.

Two of the highlight displays in the parade include a life-size recreation of the painting The Black Brunswicker by Millais in John Lewis, and a mannequin and series of images related to the Silent Partners exhibition in the Arts Picturehouse. Remarkable displays from food to fashion will be taking place in Fitzbillies, Tindalls, Bowns, Cambridge Contemporary Art, ARK, the Tourist Information Centre Gift Shop, CallyCo, Cristine Patisserie and Noa Noa.

The final mannequin is located in the Fitzwilliam Museum’s gift shop, next to the competition form collection box.

The Museum will be sharing photos from the public with the mannequins they find which are tweeted to @FitzMuseum_UK with the hashtag #SILENTPARTNERS, along with their name.

Click on the map to download the competition entry form.

The Mannequin Parade is supported by Cambridge BID, also in partnership with ‘Our Cambridge Story’, encouraging shops to tell stories about their history and products in window displays as part of ‘Curating Cambridge: our city, our stories, our stuff’. Neon green posters are in participating ‘Our Cambridge Story’ shop fronts across the city, presented by the University of Cambridge Museums in partnership with the Cambridge BID and Independent Cambridge.

Audio-visual podcasts from the second year Fashion History and Theory students of Central St Martins. These podcasts are the students’ own response to the themes of the show.

Click on the images to the right to read the prose and poems inspired by Silent Partners which were produced during the Ideas of Perfection workshop.

Audio-visual podcasts from guest speakers exploring subjects from the exhibition.

On the 5th of December the Fitzwilliam Museum hosted an animation workshop called “The adventures of a mannequin”. Inspired by Silent Partners, families brought to life some dramatic moments from the story of Pinnochio, using cut out animation.

A film and slideshow from the workshop, made by the Cambridge Film Consortium, are now available to view online.

http://www.cambridgeshirefilmconsortium.org

From Function to Fashion

The Students of Central St Martins Measure up the Mannequin

“The mannequins’ bodies are our own… yet they are also the skilfully manipulated props of commerce,” says Sara McAlpine in one of the intriguing and engaging podcasts produced by the students of Central St Martins in response to Silent Partners. Prior to its opening, curator of the exhibition, Jane Munro paid a visit to the 2nd year Fashion History and Theory Class at Central St Martins in London. The students then produced a series of audio-visual responses to the themes of the exhibition.

The series compiles a collage of stories that remind us of the mannequins’ secret history, from post-war Paris shop window to artist’s studio. Hidden amongst debate and social change, the mannequin stands still and silent. From Eugène Atget’s photographs to Madeleine Vionnet’s couture house; these podcasts take us through the role the mannequin played in fashion history and in turn provoke us to think about the mannequin’s function within the fashion industry today.

In addition to this insightful series the Pathway Leader, Alistair O’Neill and Professor of Fashion History and Theory, Caroline Evans have recorded podcasts for the Fitzwilliam Museum’s series on Silent Partners, to be released during the exhibtion. Further writing about the series can also be found at http://blogs.arts.ac.uk/csm/2014/08/20/drunken-painter-decapitates-mannequin-lover-champagne-party/

The Fitzwilliam Museum Cambridge would like to thank the students and staff of Central St Martin’s for their continuing support of Silent Partners and all the work and enthusiasm put into producing this series.

Jean-Eugène-Auguste Atget, Magasins du Bon Marché, 1926, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

Jean-Eugène-Auguste Atget, Magasins du Bon Marché, 1926, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

 

Shona Heath and Tim Walker mannequin creations

Installation Pathway

From the pages of Vogue, to shoots with top fashion houses, fashion set designer Shona Heath and photographer Tim Walker are both individually known for crafting fantastic worlds of the imagination on camera. The surprising and unusual story of the artist’s mannequin has been their inspiration for new creations and photography, which lead through the Fitzwilliam to Silent Partners.

The Museum has linked its permanent collections to the exhibition with an installation pathway which also features displays harking back to the history of the mannequin and artificial models in art.

The inspiration for the work by Shona Heath and Tim Walker started with one of the highlight paintings in Silent Partners, Reposing by Alan Beeton, featuring the artist’s mannequin seated in the studio.

Shona Heath commented: “When I saw the Alan Beeton paintings for the first time, they blew my mind. I couldn’t work out what the mannequin was, and why it was so alive. I had never heard of a lay figure, and was excited that another tool was used in painting that I didn’t know about. The pieces that are in Tim Walker’s photographs will be used as sign posts to follow through the Museum to the exhibition. Like a treasure hunt, the photographs hold items that are to be found along the way. The pictures are at once fantasy, beautiful, dark, sexual, touching on morbid, as are the installations.”

Tim Walker’s photographs include Alan Beeton’s original mannequin as well as live models, blurring the boundaries between reality and the artificial. He commented: “Looking at Beeton’s paintings, I thought that they were photographs and found them incredibly inspiring; there was a real incentive to explore the lay figures and the world that Beeton expressed as a photographic journey.”

In addition to the modern interventions the pathway includes a recreation of the ‘grande machine’ (great machine) used by Nicolas Poussin to ‘test’ his compositions. This has been specially commissioned from distinguished contemporary sculptor Andrew Lacey to replicate Poussin’s Extreme Unction (1638-40), recently acquired by the Fitzwilliam with the support of the Heritage Lottery Fund and Art Fund. Poussin used several methods of staging his paintings including: ‘dressing’ wax figurines in damp paper or fine taffeta on a board using taut strings to mark the perspective; and placing figures in an enclosed box with holes cut on the side to illuminate the scene and a smaller peep-hole cut in the front to allow Poussin to observe it in perspective.

The pathway also includes a group of astonishingly realistic wax apples from the collection of the Whipple Museum of Science. The apples are posed by a still life by Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) challenging us, as mannequins sometimes did, to separate nature from artifice.

Installation Pathway 2


#SilentPartners


Buy The Book

Complementing and expanding on the themes of the exhibition, the Silent Partners book is published by Yale University Press.

Over the course of the 19th century, the mannequin gradually emerged from the studio to become the artist’s subject, at first humorously, then in more complicated ways, playing on the unnerving psychological presence of a figure that was realistic, yet unreal—lifelike, yet lifeless.

Silent Partners locates the artist’s mannequin within the context of an expanding universe of effigies, avatars, dolls, and shop window dummies. Generously illustrated, this book features works by such artists as Poussin, Gainsborough, Degas, Courbet, Cézanne, Kokoschka, Dalí, Man Ray, and others; the astute, perceptive text examines their range of responses to the uncanny and highly suggestive potential of the mannequin.

Jane Munro is a curator in the Department of Paintings, Drawings and Prints at the Fitzwilliam Museum and director of studies in history of art at Christ’s College at the University of Cambridge.

Available to purchase from the Fitzwilliam Museum Shop Oct 13, 2014

280 p., 8 1/2 x 11
220 color + 50 b/w illus.
ISBN: 9780300208221
ISBN-10: 0300208227
Cloth: £40.00 sc

To order a copy of the book please email sales@fitzwilliammuseum.org

 


Press

Press Release
Highlight Stories
Mannequins in the exhibition
Full Image sheet

Email: press@fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk

Telephone: 01223 332941

Latest News

Apollo: “the intellectual arguments here are ambitious, and the quality of the objects consistently impressive”

BBC News:  The secret lives of mannequins

Tatler: Best books “This is the art book for art lovers.”

Telegraph: Art in 2014 “Another of the year’s top shows”

London Review of Books: At the Fitzwilliam

House & Garden: Silent Partners (December) “Exhibitions are especially illuminating when they consider the methods used by artists to achieve the end results … Now the Fitzwilliam Museum is focusing on the artist’s lay figure.”

World of Interiors: Silent Partners (December) “A brilliantly researched book and exhibition … Jane Munro has uncovered their intriguing history”

The Spectator: The secret world of the artist’s mannequin

Varsity: Lavinia Puccetti on the Silent Partners exhibition at the Fitzwilliam Museum and how its mannequins come to life

Apollo: “In the quiet exhibition space, the relationship of silently absorbing audience and silently watching exhibits brought home the narrow gap between real and imagined figures.”

Burlington: Artists’ mannequins (December) “The exhibition and associated book are … an integrated pleasure if, at times, a disconcerting one.”

Country Life: Mannequins and the Man (November) – Jeremy Musson is enthralled by a new exhibition exploring the history and significance of the artificial figures that were, for centuries, an essential tool for the working artist

Cambridge Magazine: Man and Mannequin (November) “Visually arresting … the Fitzwilliam’s latest major exhibition is a triumph”

Culture 24: Radiographers carry out CT scans on body parts of 19th century museum mannequins

Cambridge News: CT scans at Fitzwilliam Museum reveal inner workings of historic mannequins

University of Cambridge: Mannequins with x-ray vision “The fascinating results of CT scans performed by the radiology team at Addenbrooke’s Hospital on two mannequins from the 18th and 19th centuries reveal astounding science and conservation stories.”

Cambridge Globalist: How to do things with the uncanny “the exhibition reflects on mannequin’s shift from a functional stand-in for the human model to a site of fascination in its own right.”

Telegraph: “First-rate … There isn’t a museum professional in the country who couldn’t learn something from this exhibition.”

Observer: A riveting show at the Fitzwilliam looks at the use and – abuse – of mannequins in art

Guardian: Artists’ mannequins exposed in full at Cambridge exhibition

Independent on Sunday: These figures are remarkable

Independent: A history of artists and their mannequins

Guardian on Saturday: From model to sex toy – artists and mannequins

Cambridge Edition: Silent Partners

Hyperallergic: Artists’ Mannequins Through the Centuries

ITV News: Lifting the lid on the strange world of dummies

Enfilade: Silent Partners: Artist and Mannequin

Financial Times: A new exhibition explores our strange relationship with the shop dummy and artist mannequin

BBC News: Cambridge’s Fitzwilliam Museum explores artist-mannequin relationship

Cambridge News: Don’t be a dummy – go and see new show at Cambridge’s Fitzwilliam Museum

Artlyst: Mannequin Exhibition Explores The Spooky World Of Life Size Dolls

Assets

The images to the right are available for publicity and press use for Silent Partners only. Please use the credits provided. For high resolution images email press@fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk

 


Cambridge Mueseums hefce Cambridge City Council Arts Council England   Curating Cambridge Festival of Ideas
Ch.4. fig. 99- Millais, Crusader

John Everett Millais (1829–1896) Sketch of the Crusader and his wife, ‘The Return of the Crusader’, 1855–6 Birmingham Museums Trust

John Everett Millais (1829–1896), The Black Brunswicker, 1860 Courtesy National Museums Liverpool (Lady Lever Art Gallery

John Everett Millais (1829–1896), The Black Brunswicker, 1860
Courtesy National Museums Liverpool (Lady Lever Art Gallery)

Ch.1. fig. 23- JOSE MARIA SERT 1937

José María Sert (1874–1945), Photographic study for The Triumphs of Humanity, 1937 Private Collection Courtesy Galerie Michèle Chomette, Paris © José Maria Sert

Alan Beeton Reposing
Ch.1. fig. 26- JOSE MARIA SERT 1939-1945

José María Sert (1874– 1945), Photographic study for The Ascension, 1939–45 Private Collection. Courtesy of Galerie Michèle

On stairs holding a sheet

Ch.10, fig. 241- Cahun- Tate

Claude Cahun (1894–1954) Untitled, 1936 © Tate, 2014. Estate of Claude Cahun

Kokoschka Photo

Unknown photographer Alma doll, designed by Oskar Kokoschka (1886–1980), 1919 © University of Applied Arts Vienna, Oskar Kokoschka-Centre Photo: Birgit and Peter Kainz

Ch.2. fig. 42-  Rare 18th Century Mannequin
Romano Alberti

Romano Alberti, called ‘il Nero da San sepolcro’ (fl. 1521; d. 1568) Infant Martyr Saint, mid-16th century, Height 83 cm Courtesy of Patricia Wengraf Ltd

Ch.2. fig. 38-  Private Collection- Gleiderpuppe

Unknown maker (German, mid-16th century), Gliederpuppe, c. 1550 Height. 42 cm Private Collection

Ch. 10, fig. 236 -  Man Ray- Lydia and mannequins, Pompidou

Man Ray (1890–1976), Lydia and Mannequins, 1932 Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris © Man Ray Trust / ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2014

SAMSUNG CSC

Unknown maker (probably late 18th century) Lay figure once owned by Walter Sickert (1860–1942) Height 165cm Bath Spa University

Made of Iron and looking serious

Ch.3. fig.69- Chapman - The First Letter
Photograph of Charles Roberson’s temporary retail branch, Piccadilly, London, c. 1889 Roberson Archive, Hamilton Kerr Institute, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Photograph of Charles Roberson’s temporary retail branch, Piccadilly, London, c. 1889 Roberson Archive, Hamilton Kerr Institute, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Ch.7 fig. 144- Germanisches Nationalmuseum- Trubner

Wilhelm Trübner (1851–1917), Studio Interior, 1888 Nürnberg, Gemälde- und Skulpturensammlung Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, photo: Jürgen Musolf

Emile Jumeau (1843–1891) / Maison Jumeau Almond-eyed Portrait Jumeau (detail), c. 1880 © Eric Emo / Galliera / Roger-Viollet

Emile Jumeau (1843–1891) / Maison Jumeau Almond-eyed Portrait Jumeau (detail), c. 1880 © Eric Emo / Galliera / Roger-Viollet

Emile Jumeau (1843–1891) / Maison Jumeau, Bébé Jumeau (detail), c. 1885 © Eric Emo / Galliera / Roger-Viollet

Emile Jumeau (1843–1891) / Maison Jumeau, Bébé Jumeau (detail), c. 1885 © Eric Emo / Galliera / Roger-Viollet

Mannequins SiÈgel Paris : leur dÈballage, leur montage, leur habillage, leur entretien. [P. 22]
Ch.2. fig. 50- Reims 795.1.4483

Unknown artist (French, mid-18th century), Study of a wooden mannequin; oval head, c. 1760 Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Reims. © Photo: C. Devleeschauwer

Carra- The Hermaphrodite Idoltif

Carlo Carrà (1881 –1966), L’Idolo Ermafrodito (The Hermaphrodite Idol), 1917 Private Collection © DACS 2014:

G. De Chirico- Hector and Andromache

Giorgio de Chirico (1888–1978), Hector and Andromache, 1917 Private Collection: © DACS 2014

Bortnyik EVE

Sándor Bortnyik (1893–1976) , The New Eve, 1924 Museum of Fine Arts, Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest Courtesy of the Estate of Sándor Bortnyik

Ch.7 fig. 143- Yale- Ferguson Weir

John Ferguson Weir (1841–1926) His Favourite Model, 188(?6) Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Gift of Vincent Price, b.a., 1933

Edward Burne-Jones (1833–1898) Pygmalion and the Image – The Soul Attains, 1878 Birmingham Museums Trust

Edward Burne-Jones (1833–1898) Pygmalion and the Image – The Soul Attains, 1878 Birmingham Museums Trust

Ch.5. fig. 115- 29 Oct 1908
Los Maniquies de Cera de Pierre Imans, 1924 © Bibliothèque Forney / Roger-Viollet

Los Maniquies de Cera de Pierre Imans, 1924 © Bibliothèque Forney / Roger-Viollet

Denise Bellon (1902–1999), Salvador Dalí holding an artist’s lay figure (the chauffeur in the Taxi pluvieux), International Exhibition of Surrealism, Paris, 1938  © Les Films de l’Équinoxe - Fonds Photographique Denise Bellon © Salvador Dalí, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, DACS, 2014.

Denise Bellon (1902–1999), Salvador Dalí holding an artist’s lay figure (the chauffeur in the Taxi pluvieux), International Exhibition of Surrealism, Paris, 1938 © Les Films de l’Équinoxe – Fonds Photographique Denise Bellon © Salvador Dalí, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, DACS, 2014

Ray_Les Grandes vacances
Ch. 10, fig. 240- Cahun P79317- Tate

Claude Cahun (1894–1954) Untitled, 1936 © Tate, 2014. Estate of Claude Cahun

Bortnyik Adam

Sándor Bortnyik (1893–1976) , The New Adam, 1924 Museum of Fine Arts, Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest Courtesy of the Estate of Sándor Bortnyik

Ch.2. fig. 47- Reims 795.1.4496

Unknown artist (French, mid-18th century), Study of a wooden mannequin; in profile to left, c. 1760 Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Reims. © Photo: C. Devleeschauwer

Ch.2. fig. 67-  1BB_009290_LEBLOND016

Jean-Désiré Leblond (active mid- to late 19th century), Patent for improvements to a life-size artist’s mannequin, 1849 Archives, Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle (INPI), Paris

X-ray of lay figure, ‘Child no. 98’ Roberson Archive, Hamilton Kerr Institute
© Hamilton Kerr Institute, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Photo: Chris Titmus

X-ray of lay figure, ‘Child no. 98’ Roberson Archive, Hamilton Kerr Institute
© Hamilton Kerr Institute, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Photo: Chris Titmus

Ch.2. fig. 48- Reims 795.1.4497

Unknown artist (French, mid- 18th century), Study of a wooden mannequin; rear view, c. 1760, Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Reims. © Photo: C. Devleeschauwer

Guillois mannequin

François-Pierre Guillois (1764–?), Articulated wooden mannequin c. 1800 Height. 150 cm © Beaux-Arts de Paris, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / image Beaux-arts de Paris

7900.a.32_plateVI

Denis Diderot (1713–1784) and Jean le Rond d’Alembert (1717–1783), Encyclopédie Paris: Briasson, 1763 Reproduced by kind permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library

Chap 2 fig. 63- British Dental Association, Auzoux model (options available)
Chp.2. fig. 65- 1BB_008460_GAGNERY003

Jean-Auguste Gagnery (fl. mid-19th century), Patent for a new system of support for a mannequin, 1849, Archives, Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle (INPI)

Ch.5. fig. 105- Rustige_farmer in the studio

Heinrich von Rustige (1810–1900), The Farmer in the Artist’s Studio, c. 1839 Stiftung Sammlung Volmer, Wuppertal

Joseph Albrier (1791–1863), Studio Interior, 1827 Private Collection

Joseph Albrier (1791–1863), Studio Interior, 1827 Private Collection

Ch.4. fig. 89- l'atelier de Courbet- Stéréo

Eugène Feyen (1815–1908), Photograph of Gustave Courbet’s studio in Ornans, showing a lay figure, June 1864. Institut Gustave Courbet, Ornans

Ch.5. fig. 114- Otley 27 Jul 1899

Edward Linley Sambourne (1844–1910) Otley (the Sambournes’ groom) in the back yard at 18 Stafford Terrace, 27 July 1899 Reproduced by permission of 18 Stafford Terrace, The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London

Ch.9. fig. 199a- Museum of Fashion, Bath 002 OPTIONS AVAILABLE

Wax bust by Pierre Imans, 1910s–20s 
© Fashion Museum, Bath and North East Somerset Council

11. Umbo (1902–1980), Träumende (The Dreamers), 1928–9 Gelatin silver print, 210 x 292 mm, Kicken Gallery, Berlin © Phyllis Umbehr / Galerie Kicken Berlin / DACS 2014

Umbo (1902–1980), Träumende (The Dreamers), 1928–9, Kicken Gallery, Berlin © Phyllis Umbehr / Galerie Kicken Berlin / DACS 2014

Herbert List (1903–1975), Sklavin 1 (Female Slave 1), 1936 Gelatin silver print, Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie, Munich   © M. Scheler- Herbert List Estate, Hamburg/ Müncher Stadtmuseum, Munich

Herbert List (1903–1975), Sklavin 1 (Female Slave 1), 1936 Gelatin silver print, Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie, Munich
© M. Scheler- Herbert List Estate, Hamburg/ Müncher Stadtmuseum, Munich

Imans. Les cires de Pierre Imans [mannequins femmes]

Wax sculpture workshop, Les Cires de Pierre Imans (Mannequins femmes), 1920 © Bibliothèque Forney / Roger-Viollet

Imans. Los maniquies de cera de Pierre Imans

Los Maniquies de Cera de Pierre Imans, 1924 © Bibliothèque Forney / Roger-Viollet

Ch.9. fig. 199b- Museum of Fashion, Bath 016 OPTIONS AVAILABLE

Wax bust by Pierre Imans, 1910s–20s 
© Fashion Museum, Bath and North East Somerset Council

Ch.9, fig. 179- Buste ancien ESMOD

Couture/display mannequin, 1890 ESMOD International (École Supérieure des Arts et Techniques de la Mode)

Le Mannequin
Ch.3 fig. 72- Roberson, Millais's account entry
Ch.1. fig. 16- Gainsborough

Thomas Gainsborough (1727–1788), Heneage Lloyd and his Sister, Lucy, c. 1750 © The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge

PoupÈe

Emile Jumeau (1843–1891) / Maison Jumeau Almond-eyed Portrait Jumeau, c. 1880 © Eric Emo / Galliera / Roger-Viollet

An2

John Everett Millais (1829–1896) Waking, c. 1865–66 Private Collection. Photo: Ken Donegan:

Ch. 8. fig. 175- Edison's doll

Thomas A. Edison (1847–1941), Edison’s Phonographic Doll, 1890–1900, Private Collection Photo: Hilde Carling

PoupÈe habillÈe

Emile Jumeau (1843–1891) / Maison Jumeau, Bébé Jumeau, c. 1885 © Eric Emo / Galliera / Roger-Viollet

Ch.3. fig. 71- Roberson lay figure head

Head of a child lay figure, mid-19th century © Hamilton Kerr Institute, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Photo: Chris Titmus

Ch.3. fig.73- Lay figure, child no. 98, Roberson archive, HKI

Lay figure, ‘Child no. 98’, mid-19th century, height c. 92 cm © Hamilton Kerr Institute, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Photo: Chris Titmus

Kokoschka Photo

Unknown photographer Alma doll, designed by Oskar Kokoschka (1886–1980), 1919 © University of Applied Arts Vienna, Oskar Kokoschka-Centre Photo: Birgit and Peter Kainz

Ch.6. fig. 137- Moreau de Tours

Georges Moreau de Tours (1848–1901), Les Fascinées de la Charité (Patients in a State of Fascination at La Charité Hospital, Paris), 1889 Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Reims © Photo: C. Devleeschauwer

L0074997 Epilepsie Partielle. Forme Vibratoire. Pl

Désiré-Magloire Bourneville (1840–1909) and photographs by Paul Regnard (1850–1927), Partial Epilepsy, Iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière, 1878, vol. 2. Wellcome Library, London.

Ch.7 fig. 146- Degas Gulbenkian

Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Portrait of Henri Michel-Lévy, c. 1878 © Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon M.C.G., photo: Catarina Gomes Ferreira

Published in HERBERT LIST MONOGRAPH page 42

Herbert List (1903–1975), Elektra, 1944/6 © M. Scheler- Herbert List Estate, Hamburg/ Müncher Stadtmuseum, Munich

Ch.2. fig. 59- Huot

Paul Huot (French, active 1790s to 1820s), Female Mannequin, c. 1816 © bpk – Bildagentur für Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte / Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel

Ch. 10, fig. 243- Hans Bellmer, Essen

Hans Bellmer (1902-1975), Poupée (The Doll), 1935 Museum Folkwang, Essen © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2014

An5

Lay figure once owned by Walter Sickert (1860–1942). Reconstruction of CT scan imaging data of the figure’s head. Image courtesy of the Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Dr Tom Turmezei, Clinical Research Fellow, University of Cambridge

An X-Ray of a Mannequin

Diderot Pieces

Denis Diderot (1713–1784) and Jean le Rond d’Alembert (1717–1783), Encyclopédie Paris: Briasson, 1763 Reproduced by kind permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library

Ch.2. fig. 51- Reims 795.1.4487

Unknown artist (French, mid-18th century), Study of a wooden mannequin; articulation of neck, shoulders, lower back and thighs, c. 1760 Musée des Beaux- Arts de la Ville de Reims. © Photo: C. Devleeschauwer

Alan Beeton Reposing
Ch.7 fig. 146- Degas Gulbenkian

Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Portrait of Henri Michel-Lévy, c. 1878 © Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon M.C.G., photo: Catarina Gomes Ferreira

Ch.2. fig. 59- Huot

Paul Huot (French, active 1790s to 1820s), Female Mannequin, c. 1816 © bpk – Bildagentur für Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte / Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel

12. Herbert List (1903–1975), Sklavin 1 (Female Slave 1), 1936 Gelatin silver print, 267 x 196 mm, Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie, Munich  © M. Scheler- Herbert List Estate, Hamburg/ Müncher Stadtmuseum, Munich

Herbert List (1903–1975), Sklavin 1 (Female Slave 1), 1936 Gelatin silver print, Münchner Stadtmuseum, Sammlung Fotografie, Munich © M. Scheler- Herbert List Estate, Hamburg/ Müncher Stadtmuseum, Munich

Ch.9. fig. 199a- Museum of Fashion, Bath 002 OPTIONS AVAILABLE

Wax bust by Pierre Imans, 1910s–20s 
© Fashion Museum, Bath and North East Somerset Council

Ch.7 fig. 144- Germanisches Nationalmuseum- Trubner

Wilhelm Trübner (1851–1917), Studio Interior, 1888 Nürnberg, Gemälde- und Skulpturensammlung Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, photo: Jürgen Musolf

Ch.5. fig. 105- Rustige_farmer in the studio

Heinrich von Rustige (1810–1900), The Farmer in the Artist’s Studio, c. 1839 Stiftung Sammlung Volmer, Wuppertal

8. John Everett Millais (1829–1896), The Black Brunswicker, 1860 Oil on canvas, 104 x 68.5 cm, Lady Lever Art Gallery, Liverpool  Courtesy National Museums Liverpool

John Everett Millais (1829–1896), The Black Brunswicker, 1860 Courtesy National Museums Liverpool (Lady Lever Art Gallery

Ch.1. fig. 23- JOSE MARIA SERT 1937

José María Sert (1874–1945), Photographic study for The Triumphs of Humanity, 1937 Private Collection Courtesy Galerie Michèle Chomette, Paris © José Maria Sert

Ch.6. fig. 137- Moreau de Tours

Georges Moreau de Tours (1848–1901), Les Fascinées de la Charité (Patients in a State of Fascination at La Charité Hospital, Paris), 1889 Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Reims © Photo: C. Devleeschauwer

16. Jean-Eugène-Auguste Atget (1857–1927), Coiffeur, Palais Royal, 1926–7 Gold-toned albumen print from gelatin dry plate negative, c. 240 x 285 mm , Victoria and Albert Museum, London © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Jean-Eugène-Auguste Atget (1857–1927), Coiffeur, Palais Royal, 1926–7 © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Ch.2. fig. 67-  1BB_009290_LEBLOND016

Jean-Désiré Leblond (active mid- to late 19th century), Patent for improvements to a life-size artist’s mannequin, 1849 Archives, Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle (INPI), Paris

Ch. 8. fig. 175- Edison's doll

13. Thomas A. Edison (1847–1941), Edison’s Phonographic Doll, 1890–1900 Bisque head, metal body, wooden limbs, glass eyes, hair wig, cotton dress, phonograph, H.53.5 cm, Private Collection Photo: Hilde Carling

Ch.3. fig.73- Lay figure, child no. 98, Roberson archive, HKI

Lay figure, ‘Child no. 98’, mid-19th century, height c. 92 cm © Hamilton Kerr Institute, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Photo: Chris Titmus

15. Unknown maker (British, mid-18th century), Fashion doll with costume and accessories, 1755–60 Wood, gesso, paint, glass, human hair, knitted cotton, satin, silk, gilt braid, wire, silk gauze, linen, cotton, and silk satin, H.60 x W.42 x D.43 cm, Victoria and Albert Museum, London © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Unknown maker (British, mid-18th century), Fashion doll with costume and accessories, 1755–60 Height 60cm, © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Alan Beeton Reposing
Jean-Eugène-Auguste Atget, Magasins du Bon Marché, 1926, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Installation Pathway
Installation Pathway 2